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They argue that the framers also contemplated a right to individual and community protection. This view embodies the individual rights theory.
This debate has raised often profound questions, but questions generally treated hastily, if at all, by the community of constitutional scholars. For example, if one accepts the collective rights view of the Amendment, serious questions arise concerning whether the federal government's integration of the National Guard into the Army and, later, the Air Force have not in all but name destroyed the very institutional independence of the militia that is at the heart of what the collective rights theorists see as the framers' intentions. Even the gun control debate is not completely resolved by an acceptance of the collective rights theory.
In the eighteenth century, the chief vehicle for law enforcement was the posse comitatus, and the major American military force was the militia of the whole.
While these institutions are still recognized by modern law, they lie dormant in late twentieth-century America.
Some of these questions are obvious and frequently asked, such as where to draw the line between an individual's right to possess arms and the corollary right to self-defense on the one hand, and the community's interest in public safety and crime control on the other.
 Societal, as well as technological, changes raise questions for advocates of the individual rights view of the Second Amendment.
At the heart of the individual rights view is the contention that the framers of the Second Amendment intended to protect the right to bear arms for two related purposes.
The first of these was to ensure popular participation in the security of the community, an outgrowth of the English and early American reliance on posses and militias made up of the general citizenry to provide police and military forces. The second purpose was to ensure an armed citizenry in order to prevent potential tyranny by a government empowered and perhaps emboldened by a monopoly of force. The second argument, that an armed populace might serve as a basis for resistance to tyranny, raises questions of its own.
It would give to persons of the negro race, who were recognized as citizens in any one State of the Union, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, ...
and it would give them the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, The often strident debate over the Second Amendment is like few others in American constitutional discourse and historiography.
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Professional police forces and a standing military establishment assisted by semi-professional auxiliaries--the reserves and the National Guard--have largely assumed the roles of public protection and national security.