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They cut pine trees to build Fort Maurepas, the first of several forts in the region.
Without even so much as a “Bon jour” to the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natchez and other nations they had invaded, they planted their flag and declared that tens of millions of acres of land in the Louisiana Territory now belonged to France.
He also talks about “,” areas of the country where large numbers of enslaved Africans had lived in the midst of a surrounding sea of Europeans and Native Americans.
After the Civil War they gradually intermixed with the surrounding peoples creating enclaves of individuals of what Frazier calls “.” He identifies Ahoskie, North Carolina and Mahwah, New York as just two examples.
Hence, their children, “,” had to be Black and Native American.
For example, Jean Baptiste Pont du Sable, who founded Chicago was a Creole.
Most lacked the knowledge or energy required even to gather nuts and berries or to scoop up the bountiful shellfish that proliferated in the waters around the Gulf of Mexico.
Soldiers at the forts considered a good day’s work was getting drunk by noon and then talking an influential Indian into supplying women to satisfy their sexual appetites.
Fifty years ago, in North Carolina especially, there were large groups of people who saw themselves as Black Indians. Franklin Frazier discusses them in depth in The Negro Family in the United States.
It only took them seven years to acquire their first slaves, from whom they could order their daily bread rather than request it.
The Invasion Of Louisiana In late February, 1699, Pierre le Moyne d’Iberville, his brother Jean Baptiste le Moyne de Bienville, and a small group of soldiers, sailors, and artisans dropped anchor in Biloxi Bay.
There is still a large community of Creoles in Louisiana today. It is said that, as intermediaries between the Blacks and the whites, they got European instruments into the hands of African musicians and thereby facilitated the development of jazz.
In New England we find Cape Verdians, Africans who migrated here in the 18th and 19th century aboard whaling ships that stopped in Cabo Verde, an island off the coast of West Africa, to resupply and pick up extra hands.