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The Grey Nunnery offers a refuge to old people of both sexes incurables, orphans, and abandoned children or foundlings.Hundreds of these waifs are received yearly into the institution.Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more all for only .99.... In case of the death of the cardinal camerlengo, the cardinal grand penitentiary, and individual penitentiaries, this cardinalitial commission could fill their places for the period of the vacancy (C.
viii, in "Museum Italicum", II, 567), i.e., on certain great feasts, bishops of superior rank say Mass on the altar of the Lateran Basilica. In Austria, Spain, and Portugal the biretta is usually imposed by the sovereign or civil ruler.
On the other hand, Sixtus V, by his yet valid constitutions "Postquam verus", of 3 Dec., 1586 (§ 4), and "Religiosa sanctorum", of 13 April, 1587, fixed the number of cardinals at seventy, six cardinal-bishops, fifty cardinal-priests, and fourteen cardinal-deacons, in imitation of the seventy elders of Moses, and declared null and void all nominations in excess of this number (Bullarium Rom., Turin, 1857, VIII, 810 sqq., 833 sqq.). This constitution provides that according to ancient custom (evidently closely related to the above-described interimistic administration by the archpriest, the archdeacon, and the chief of the notaries) the administration of the States of the Church shall be confided to the College of Cardinals after the following manner: the cardinal camerlengo ( are renewed according to seniority.
In 1555 an agreement was reached between Paul IV and the cardinals, whereby their number was fixed at forty, but this agreement was never carried out. The actual cardinalitial dioceses are Ostia and Velletri, Porto and Santa Rufina, Albano, Frascati (Tusculum), Palestrina (Præneste), and Sabina. The law prevailing at present is based on the Constitution "In eligendis" of Pius IV (9 October, 1562) §§ 6-8 (Bullarium Rom., VII, 233 sqq.).
Moreover, in virtue of a papal provision as old as the reign of Pope Simplicius (468-83), these cardinal-priests were wont to conduct Divine service at the three principal cemetery churches (St. To each of these four churches were assigned seven cardinals; the latter were therefore twenty-eight in number. Since, according to the foregoing, the name of "cardinal" was linked with participation and co-operation in the papal Mass, or in ecclesiastical services at the principal papal churches of Rome it need not surprise us that, by reason of analogous participation in these services, other Roman ecclesiastics, from the deacons downwards, came to bear the title of cardinal. XV, "Decet", 12 March, 1621, in "Bullarium Romanum", XII, 663 sq.). Wahrmund, "Ueber die kirchliche Zulässigkeit der Rekusation der übertragenen Kardinalswürde", in "Archiv f. Kirchenrecht", LXVII, 3 sqq.) The oath taken by the cardinals is quite similar to that taken by bishops. The violation of this law entails grave penalties, even the loss of the cardinalitial dignity (C.
Such a division, scarcely possible in the period of persecution, is vouched for at the end of the fifth century by the signatures of Roman presbyters present at the Council of Rome in 499 under Pope Symmachus (cf. Thiel, Epistolæ Romanorum Pontificum genuinæ, Brunsberg, 1868, 651 sqq.). The pope also entrusts to them the administration of vacant abbeys and the filling of the vacant abbatial offices, but not without his foreknowledge. Laurence), and later on at the same churches raised (with St Mary Major) to patriarchal rank. In his quality of supervisor of ecclesiastical discipline in the city, and curator of the papal finances, he was, after the pope, the most important person in the Roman Church during the early Middle Ages. At present any form of publication suffices (Pius V, 29 Jan., 1571; Greg. Hence the cardinals are obliged to reside at Rome and cannot leave the Papal States without permission of the pope.