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A key development was the Raffles Ordinances (1822) for Singapore which stipulated that “all houses constructed of brick or tiles have a common type of front each having an arcade of a certain depth, open to all sides as a continuous and open passage on each side of the street”.
This practice spread to other States in British Malaya and by-laws with requirements for "verandah-ways of...
The party walls that separate most shophouses from their neighbours are generally constructed out of masonry (usually locally manufactured baked clay bricks) and they are structural, load-bearing walls, i.e.
they transfer the weight of the roof and upper floors down to the ground.
at least seven feet measuring from the boundary of the road ..the footway within any verandah-way must be at least five feet in the clear." The by-laws were an important element in the evolution of the shophouse building form.
The covered walkway along the road is within the shophouse property line but is for public use, providing pedestrians shade from sun and rain.While all shophouses appear, visually, to have similarly narrow widths, these are not uniform and minor variations are the rule, especially when comparing buildings built at different times, by different owners and with different materials or technologies.In Singapore, many Chinese immigrants moved with their businesses into shophouses, and as the majority of these immigrants came from the southeastern coastal provinces of China, the architecture of early Niucheshui shophouses was strongly influenced by that of southern China. standing right next to each other along a street, with no gap or space in between buildings (in similar vein as a terraced house).more21 Dec: The 68-year-old retired professional wrestler was hospitalised with stomach pains in August, which was later diagnosed as the early stages of kidney failure and congestive heart failure due to years of alcohol abuse...more21 Dec: The 25-year-old model has admitted she feels “lucky” to have been supported by her sisters, her mother, and her friends throughout her career, and believes having close female friends who inspire her is an “amazing gift” that has “really shaped” the person she is today...