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The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states.With the Compromise of 1877, military intervention in Southern politics ceased and Republican control collapsed in the last three state governments in the South.After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his veto, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto.The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The new national reconstruction laws -- in particular laws requiring suffrage (the right to vote) for freedmen -- incensed White Supremacists in the south, giving rise to the Klu Klux Klan. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress.Most of the violence was carried out by members of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), a secretive terrorist organization closely allied with the southern Democratic Party.
The white Democratic Southerners' memory of Reconstruction played a major role in imposing the system of white supremacy and second-class citizenship for blacks, known as the age of Jim Crow.By fall 1865, the new President Andrew Johnson declared the war goals of national unity and the ending of slavery achieved and reconstruction completed.Republicans in Congress, refusing to accept Johnson's lenient terms, rejected new members of Congress, some of whom had been high-ranking Confederate officials a few months before.The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, and enfranchise the freedmen. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them. In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature.A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers, businessmen and politicians. The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law.